The Ukrainian national revolution changed the balance of forces in Europe. Due to this Moscow Tsardom began to follow a policy of active expansion in Eastern Europe. The title of Moscow monarchs has been changed. Since early 18th century a new title was introduced: “The Sovereign of all Rus’: the Great, the Little, and the White”. For the Moscow Tsardom this period was a spell of constant and protracted wars: with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – for the Ukraine, with the Swedish Empire – for the Baltic, with the Ottoman Porte – for Ukraine and the Black Sea coast.
The Cossack state was forced to send troops to participate in armed conflicts campaigns on the side of the Moscow Tsardom. During the Azov campaigns of Tsar Peter I, Hetman Ivan Mazepa proved to be a gifted commander. In 1700 he became a second recipient of the newly created Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called. The first recipient of the order was Count Fyodor Golovin who was a head of the foreign policy department in the government of Tsar Peter I.
Since the 16th century, the center of gravity of the world trade is gradually moving from the Mediterranean to the Baltic and North Seas. The main task of the diplomatic and power structures of European countries in the 17th and early 18th centuries was to struggle for the trade and political domination in the Baltic region, which at that time was controlled by the Swedish Empire.
The dissatisfaction of the Baltic states with the strengthening of the position of Sweden in the Baltic led to the creation of anti-Swedish Northern Alliance which was finally formed at the end of 17th century and included Denmark-Norway, Saxony-Poland-Lithuania and Moscow Tsardom. It was this alliance that in 1700 began an armed struggle with Sweden for redistribution of possessions in the Baltic, which later became known as the Great Northern war.
In the hall dedicated to the Prerequisites and causes of the Great Northern war (1700-1721), visitors can see many portraits of historical figures, sample of warrior’s armour, cold steel, firearms, and a model of the frontal part of the early 18th century warship.